Author Topic: Bagaimana Individual Kristian Menafsirkan Ayat2 Alkitab  (Read 1245 times)

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October 24, 2014, 01:51:52 PM
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Meliputi:
1. Approach
2. Method
3. Procedure
4. Technique
5. Principles
6. etc

Silahkan berbagi masukan, berbagi pengetahuan (hermeneutika, eksegesis), dll dlm kaitannya dgn poinnya trit ini iaitu [menafsirkan ayat2 alkitab dgn sehat scr individually]...




Repentance and humility establish the soul. Charity and meekness strengthen it.
- Monk Evagrius
October 24, 2014, 02:01:12 PM
Reply #1
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Scriptura est non in legendo, sed in intelligendo
(Scripture is not in the reading, but in the understanding)
- St. Hillary

Repentance and humility establish the soul. Charity and meekness strengthen it.
- Monk Evagrius
October 24, 2014, 02:39:04 PM
Reply #2
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Silakan di share bagi rekan-rekan yang piawai dalam hermenutika Alkitab.
Saya menyimak saja karena tidak mampu mengisi ke-5 poin di atas (maksud tiap-tiap poin aja ga ngerti saya).
Tetapi siapa yang termasuk orang hidup mempunyai harapan, karena anjing yang hidup lebih baik dari pada singa yang mati (Pkh 9:4)

https://manusia-biasa-saja.blogspot.com
October 24, 2014, 02:50:01 PM
Reply #3
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Meliputi:
1. Approach
2. Method
3. Procedure
4. Technique
5. Principles
6. etc

Silahkan berbagi masukan, berbagi pengetahuan (hermeneutika, eksegesis), dll dlm kaitannya dgn poinnya trit ini iaitu [menafsirkan ayat2 alkitab dgn sehat scr individually]...

Kalau ditafsirkan dengan seenak perutnya sendiri plus ngeyel, seperti yang biasa dilakukan beberapa member sini, termasuk yang mana, bro?

October 24, 2014, 02:57:18 PM
Reply #4
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Silakan di share bagi rekan-rekan yang piawai dalam hermenutika Alkitab.
Saya menyimak saja karena tidak mampu mengisi ke-5 poin di atas (maksud tiap-tiap poin aja ga ngerti saya).

FWIW: http://learning.sabda.org/baca.php?b=hermeneutik
Quote
Prinsip-prinsip Penafsiran Alkitab yang Bertanggungjawab
Penyusun: Dra. Yulia Oeniyati Buffet, M.Th.
...
Allah menyampaikan FirmanNya kepada seluruh manusia sepanjang sejarah melalui para penulis Alkitab. Untuk Firman itu sampai kepada manusia dengan baik, khususnya kepada manusia yang hidup di abad ini, ada gap yang sangat besar yang harus dijembatani. Firman Tuhan itu ditulis ribuan dan ratusan tahun y.l., oleh banyak penulis Alkitab yang hidup pada jaman yang berbeda-beda dan dari latar belakang yang berbeda-beda, dan ditulis dalam bahasa-bahasa yang tidak kita kuasai. Bagaimana cara orang percaya abad ini mengerti Firman Tuhan agar Firman itu diterima sama seperti ketika para penulis Alkitab mula-mula menerimaNya? Inilah tugas Hermeneutik!

...

Aliran-aliran Hermeneutik
1. METODE ALEGORIS. Metode Alegoris berangkat dari suatu asumsi bahwa dibalik arti harafiah yang sudah biasa dan jelas itu terdapat arti sesungguhnya (kedua) yang lebih dalam yang perlu ditemukan oleh orang Kristen yang lebih dewasa. Dalam menafsirkan perikop Alkitab mereka membandingkan masing-masing fakta/informasi yang sudah jelas untuk membuka kebenaran rohani tersembunyi dibalik pengertian literalnya....

2. METODE MISTIS. Banyak ahli tafsir Alkitab menggolongkan metode penafsiran Mistis sama dengan metode penafsiran Alegoris, karena memang sangat mirip. Penganut metode ini biasanya bercaya bahwa ada arti rohani dibalik semua arti harafiah yang kelihatan. Dan mereka memberikan botot yang lebih berat kepada hasil penafsiran mistis daripada arti yang sudah biasa....

3. METODE PERENUNGAN (Devotional). Tujuan metode penafsiran ini adalah hanya pada pengaplikasiannya saja sehingga penganut metode ini menafsirkan Alkitab dalam konteks pengalaman hidup mereka sehari-hari. Mereka percaya bahwa Alkitab ditulis memang untuk tujuan pengkudusan pribadi semata-mata oleh karena itu arti rohani ayat-ayat tsb. hanya akan dapat ditemukan dari terang pergumulan rohani pribadi. Oleh karena itu yang paling penting dalam mengerti Alkitab adalah apa yang Tuhan katakan kepada saya pribadi...

4. METODE RASIONAL. Metode Rasional sangat digemari pada masa sesudah Reformasi, namun demikian dampaknya masih terasa sampai jaman modern ini dalam berbagai macam bentuk penafsiran yang pada dasarnya bersumber pada metode Rasional. Penganut metode Rasional berasumsi bahwa Alkitab bukanlah otoritas tertinggi yang harus menjadi panutan. Alkitab ditulis oleh manusia maka berarti merupakan hasil karya rasio manusia. Oleh karena itu kalau ada bagian-bagian Alkitab yang tidak dapat diterima oleh rasio manusia maka bisa dikatakan bahwa bagian Alkitab tsb. hanyalah mitos saja....

5. METODE LITERAL (HARAFIAH). Metode Literal adalah metode penafsiran Alkitab yang paling tua, karena metode inilah yang dipakai pertama kali oleh Bapak Hermeneutik Ezra. Metode ini juga yang dipakai oleh Tuhan Yesus dan pada rasul. Metode penafsiran Literal berasumsi bahwa kata-kata yang dipakai dalam Alkitab adalah kata-kata yang memiliki arti seperti yang diterima oleh manusia normal pada umumnya, yang memiliki arti yang yang jelas dan dapat dipertanggung jawabkan oleh akal sehat manusia. Tujuan Allah memberikan FirmanNya adalah supaya dimengerti oleh manusia oleh karena itu Allah memakai bahasa dan hukum-hukum komunikasi manusia untuk menafsirkan arti dan maksudnya.

Yang dimaksud dengan "literal" (harafiah) adalah arti yang biasa yang diterima secara sosial dan adat istiadat setempat dalam konteks dimana penulis Alkitab itu hidup. Oleh karena itu apabila arti ayat-ayat Alkitab tidak jelas maka penafsir harus kembali melihat konteks bahasa dan budaya (sejarah) dimana penulis itu hidup dan penafsir harus menafsirkan ayat-ayat itu sesuai dengan terang dan pertimbangan konteks bahasa dan budaya (sejarah) itu.

Hal-hal yang perlu dipahami dalam menggunakan metode Literal:
Metode Literal tidak berarti tidak mengakui adanya arti figuratif dari ayat-ayat tertentu dalam Alkitab.
Metode Literal tidak berarti tidak mengakui adanya ari rohani dari ayat-ayat tertentu dalam Alkitab.
Metode Literal tidak berarti mengabaikan tujuan aplikasi pribadi dalam penafsiran.
Metode Literal tidak berarti tidak mengakui adanya arti yang dalam yang harus ditemukan dalam penafsiran.




Repentance and humility establish the soul. Charity and meekness strengthen it.
- Monk Evagrius
October 24, 2014, 02:59:18 PM
Reply #5
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ORTHODOX.

Orthodox hermeneutics is centered in ecclesiology (the "many") and pneumatology.


http://www.fatheralexander.org/booklets/english/revelation_interpretation.htm
Revelation and Interpretation
- Archpriest Georgy Florovsky
Quote
The Bible is by no means a complete collection of all historical, legislative and devotional writings available, but a selection of some, authorized and authenticated by the use (first of all liturgical) in the community, and finally by the formal authority of the Church

And there was some very definite purpose by which this "selection" was guided and checked.
Yoh 20:30-31    Memang masih banyak tanda lain yang dibuat Yesus di depan mata murid-murid-Nya, yang tidak tercatat dalam kitab ini, tetapi semua yang tercantum di sini telah dicatat, supaya kamu percaya, bahwa Yesuslah Mesias, Anak Allah, dan supaya kamu oleh imanmu memperoleh hidup dalam nama-Nya.
The same applies, more or less, to the whole Bible. Certain writings have been selected, edited and compiled, and brought together, and then commended to believers, to the people, as an authorized version of the divine message.

The message is divine; it comes from God; it is the Word of God.
But it is the faithful community that acknowledges the Word spoken and testifies to its truth.
The sacred character of the Bible is ascertained by faith.
The Bible, as a book, has been composed in the community and was meant primarily for its edification.
The book and the Church cannot be separated.
The book and the Covenant belong together, and Covenant implies people.
It was the People of the Covenant to whom the Word of God had been entrusted under the old dispensation (Rom. 3:2), and it is the Church of the Word Incarnate that keeps the message of the Kingdom.
The Bible is the Word of God indeed, but the book stands by the testimony of the Church
The canon of the Bible is obviously established and authorized by the Church.
...
The God of the Bible is not Deus absconditus, but Deus revelatus.
God is manifesting and revealing himself.
...
The Old Testament as a whole has to be considered as "a book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the Son of David, the Son of Abraham" (Matt. 1:1).
Now, the time of expectation is over.
The promise had been accomplished.
The Lord has come.
And he came to abide among his people for ever.
The history of flesh and blood is closed.
The history of the Spirit is disclosed
But it was an accomplishment, not destruction of the old.
Vetus Testamentum in Novo patet (The Old Testament extends into the New)...And patet means precisely: is revealed, disclosed, fulfilled.
Therefore, the books of the Hebrews are still sacred, even for the new Israel of Christ — not to be left out or ignored.
...
Prophecy has been accomplished and law has been superseded by grace.
But nothing has passed away.
In sacred history, "the past" does not mean simply "passed" or "what had been," but primarily that which had been accomplished and fulfilled. "Fulfilment" is the basic category of revelation. That which has become sacred remains consecrated and holy for ever. It has the seal of the Spirit. And the Spirit breathes still in the words once inspired by him.
...
Revelation is preserved in the Church.
Therefore, the Church is the proper and primary interpreter of revelation.
It is protected and reinforced by written words; protected, but not exhausted.
The Scriptures need interpretation. Not the phrasing, but the message is the core.
And the Church is the divinely appointed and permanent witness to the very truth and the full meaning of this message, simply because the Church belongs itself to the revelation, as the Body of the Incarnate Lord.
The Church stands by its testimony and witness.
But this witness is not just a reference to the past, not merely a reminiscence, but rather a continuous rediscovery of the message once delivered to the saints and ever since kept by faith.
Moreover, this message is ever re-enacted in the life of the Church.
...
Magnalia Dei are not circumscribed by the past; they are ever present and continued, in the Church and, through the Church, in the world.
...


>>>


Repentance and humility establish the soul. Charity and meekness strengthen it.
- Monk Evagrius
October 24, 2014, 03:23:56 PM
Reply #6
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Personal opinion:
[Tulisan (Dave Armstrong) edited by me dan wa tambahin sendiri]
>>

Q: "You can't interpret Scripture on your own"
A: It isn't so much that the Church is saying "You can't interpret Scripture on your own," rather: "don't become so independent that you interpret in a way that is contrary to Church dogma."
The Papal Encyclical, Divino Afflante Spiritus, of Pope Pius XII in 1943 attempted to counteract this error by stating that there are but few texts whose understanding has been determined by the teaching authority of the Church; and Catholics do indeed have freedom to interpret the Scriptures.

Some [Non-Catholic] critics think this stricture implies that Catholic exegetes aren't "free."
But that is silly, since [Non-Catholic] traditions have doctrines, too, which are non-negotiable.
A professor at [a denom A] seminary, for example, couldn't interpret Scripture in [a denom B], [non-denom A] fashion, or he would be out of a job.
So every conscious Christian interpreter comes to the text with prior biases or beliefs, and believes that Scripture teaches those things.
Why should Catholics be singled out?
It's a double-standard argument.

---

Q: in history, Catholics were forbidden to read the Bible ?!
A: When, in history, Catholics were forbidden to read the Bible it was a particular translation which usually was unauthorized and highly illiterate in its fidelity to original sources. In other words, unauthorized versions were often just simply bad translations.



Next >>>

Repentance and humility establish the soul. Charity and meekness strengthen it.
- Monk Evagrius
October 24, 2014, 03:38:15 PM
Reply #7
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ROMAN CATHOLIC

http://www.catholicapologetics.org/ap031000.htm
Hermeneutics: Understanding Revelation

In all human communication, the receiver must create meaning from the symbols (the message) used by the communicator. All Christians must discover the meaning intended by the author(s) of the books of the Bible to understand what God is revealing. The process of discovering meaning from the Bible is called hermeneutics. All Christians recognize that how we approach the Bible determines often what we take from it.

Understanding what God would have us know from the Bible is made difficult by many factors:
> The Bible contains some very ancient books;
> Sometimes it is not even known who the author of a book really was;
> Not knowing for certain who an author was is complicated by the period of time in which an author lived;
> Since many authors were ancient Semites, their way of thinking and manner of expressing themselves differ from our own;
> Since we do not possess any original manuscripts of the books of the Bible, we have to contend with copying and editing which occurred over time;
> Then the issue of the multiplicity of human authors and editors complicates our understanding;
> Finally, the fact of both a divine and a human author makes understanding a challenge.

Hermeneutics (from the Greek word hermeneia which means speech or interpretation) is used to cover a broad scope in the process of understanding. It refers to:
> interpretation by speech itself, as language interprets the mind;
> the process of translation from an unintelligible language to an intelligible one (cf. 1 Cor 12:10);
> interpretation by commentary and explanation.

The Catholic Church has been solicitous over the way in which the Bible is interpreted. Experience teaches us that it is easy to find even contradictory meanings from the same Scripture with an unbridled approach to reading and interpreting the Bible.

The Catholic Church teaches that the first principle of hermeneutics is the literal meaning of the text.
Spiritus Paraclitus (Benedict XV, September 15, 1920)
As Jerome insisted, all biblical interpretation rests upon the literal sense ...
Divino Afflante Spiritus (Pius XII, September 30, 1943)
... discern and define that sense of the biblical words which is called literal ... so that the mind of the author may be made clear.... the exegete must be principally concerned with the literal sense of the Scriptures.

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« Last Edit: October 24, 2014, 03:52:07 PM by Seek d Truth »
Repentance and humility establish the soul. Charity and meekness strengthen it.
- Monk Evagrius
October 24, 2014, 03:38:39 PM
Reply #8
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http://www.catholicapologetics.org/ap031000.htm

1. Literal Sense
Definition: the literal sense of Scripture is the meaning which the human author directly intended and the author's words convey.

Criteria to understand the literal sense:
> The literary form that the author used is the first aid in determining what the author meant. If the author wrote poetry instead of history, then the literary form of poetry assists in determining the meaning intended by the author. Some other literary forms of the Bible include history, law, songs, love stories, stories (parables), etc.
> The literary history of the biblical book or of the section of the Bible that contains the book also aids in determining the meaning intended by the author. Literary history of a book includes what is known about the author, his background, his historical period of Israel's history, etc.


2. Fuller Sense
Definition: The fuller sense is the deeper meaning intended by God as divine author. The fuller sense of Scripture, since it is the meaning intended by God, may not have been clearly known and intended by the human author.

Criteria to establish the fuller sense:
Because the Catholic Church holds that there are two revealing authorities of Divine Revelation, the Bible and the Holy Spirit, the fuller sense of the Bible can be found in the authoritative interpretation of those revealing authorities. Some of these authorities are the New Testament itself, the Fathers of the Church, the Church in Council (cf. Acts 15 model), the "faithful people" faithful to what was handed down to them, etc. The Spirit of Truth is entrusted to faithful people as an authority in the Church.
The fuller sense of any Scripture text has to be in agreement with the literal sense of the words. This fuller sense must be a consequential development of what the human author of the text intended to say.


3. Typical Sense
Definition: The typical sense of Bible texts is the deeper meaning that some elements (persons, places, things and events) of the Bible have because God, the divine author of the Bible, intended that these elements foreshadow/shadow further things.

Criteria to understanding the typical sense:
The typical sense of the Bible is created by continuing revelation or growth in the understanding the Word of God. Extra-biblical growth in understanding the Word of God is evidenced in the growth and development of the understanding of the Trinity, the Incarnation, etc. Types--the typical sense--are discovered in the New Testament, or in the agreement among "faithful people" faithful to what was handed down to them--the Fathers of the Church, in worship-- the liturgy--and its development through the ages, in the documents of the Church, etc. The Catholic Church believes that the Holy Spirit is a revealing authority in the Church and reveals Himself to "faithful people" in all ages.

The other criterion for discovering the typical meaning of Scripture is understanding that any type found in the text of the Bible has to be related to the anti-type (e.g., Christ to Adam). This confirms that God planned the relationship of the type to the anti-type.


Repentance and humility establish the soul. Charity and meekness strengthen it.
- Monk Evagrius
October 24, 2014, 06:44:42 PM
Reply #9
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Kalau ditafsirkan dengan seenak perutnya sendiri plus ngeyel, seperti yang biasa dilakukan beberapa member sini, termasuk yang mana, bro?
itu termasuk [eisegesis], kk...
definisi eisegesis: menafsir seenak jidat mereka.
 ;D

Repentance and humility establish the soul. Charity and meekness strengthen it.
- Monk Evagrius
 


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