Diskusi Purgatory Oleh Bapa Gereja Perdana

Dalam Thread ini saya akan memulai membahas satu persatu tentang Tradisi Bapa Gereja yang dianggap sebagai Purgatory dalam pandangan Gereja Orthodox Timur.

Apologetik Api Penyucian berdasarkan Ajaran para bapa Gereja/Tradisi Gereja

The Early Church’s Belief in Purgatory

“And after the exhibition, Tryphaena again receives her. For her daughter Falconilla had died, and said to her in a dream: Mother, thou shaft have this stranger Thecla in my place, in order that she may pray concerning me, and that I may be transferred to the place of the just.” Acts of Paul and Thecla (A.D. 160).

“Abercius by name, I am a disciple of the chaste shepherd…He taught me…faithful writings…These words, I, Abercius, standing by, ordered to be inscribed. In truth, I was in the course of my seventy-second year. Let him who understands and believes this pray fro Abercius.” Inscription of Abercius (A.D. 190).

“Without delay, on that very night, this was shown to me in a vision. I saw Dinocrates going out from a gloomy place, where also there were several others, and he was parched and very thirsty, with a filthy countenance and pallid colour, and the wound on his face which he had when he died. This Dinocrates had been my brother after the flesh, seven years of age? Who died miserably with disease…But I trusted that my prayer would bring help to his suffering; and I prayed for him every day until we passed over into the prison of the camp, for we were to fight in the camp-show. Then was the birth-day of Gets Caesar, and I made my prayer for my brother day and night, groaning and weeping that he might be granted to me. Then, on the day on which we remained in fetters, this was shown to me. I saw that that place which I had formerly observed to be in gloom was now bright; and Dinocrates, with a clean body well clad, was finding refreshment. And where there had been a wound, I saw a scar; and that pool which I had before seen, I saw now with its margin lowered even to the boy’s navel. And one drew water from the pool incessantly, and upon its brink was a goblet filled with water; and Dinocrates drew near and began to drink from it, and the goblet did not fail. And when he was satisfied, he went away from the water to play joyously, after the manner of children, and I awoke. Then I understood that he was translated from the place of punishment.” The Passion of Perpetua and Felicitias, 2:3-4 (A.D. 202).

“Accordingly the believer, through great discipline, divesting himself of the passions, passes to the mansion which is better than the former one, viz., to the greatest torment, taking with him the characteristic of repentance from the sins he has committed after baptism. He is tortured then still more–not yet or not quite attaining what he sees others to have acquired. Besides, he is also ashamed of his transgressions. The greatest torments, indeed, are assigned to the believer. For God’s righteousness is good, and His goodness is righteous. And though the punishments cease in the course of the completion of the expiation and purification of each one, yet those have very great and permanent grief who are found worthy of the other fold, on account of not being along with those that have been glorified through righteousness.” Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, 6:14 (post A.D. 202).

“[T]hat allegory of the Lord which is extremely clear and simple in its meaning, and ought to be from the first understood in its plain and natural sense…Then, again, should you be disposed to apply the term ‘adversary’ to the devil, you are advised by the (Lord’s) injunction, while you are in the way with him, 'to make even with him such a compact as may be deemed compatible with the requirements of your true faith. Now the compact you have made respecting him is to renounce him, and his pomp, and his angels. Such is your agreement in this matter. Now the friendly understanding you will have to carry out must arise from your observance of the compact: you must never think of getting back any of the things which you have abjured, and have restored to him, lest he should summon you as a fraudulent man, and a transgressor of your agreement, before God the Judge (for in this light do we read of him, in another passage, as ‘the accuser of the brethren,’ or saints, where reference is made to the actual practice of legal prosecution); and lest this Judge deliver you over to the angel who is to execute the sentence, and he commit you to the prison of hell, out of which there will be no dismissal until the smallest even of your delinquencies be paid off in the period before the resurrection. What can be a more fitting sense than this? What a truer interpretation?” Tertullian, A Treatise on the Soul, 35 (A.D. 210).

“All souls, therefore; are shut up within Hades: do you admit this? It is true, whether you say yes or no: moreover, there are already experienced there punishments and consolations; and there you have a poor man and a rich…Moreover, the soul executes not all its operations with the ministration of the flesh; for the judgment of God pursues even simple cogitations and the merest volitions. ‘Whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.’ Therefore, even for this cause it is most fitting that the soul, without at all waiting for the flesh, should be punished for what it has done without the partnership of the flesh. So, on the same principle, in return for the pious and kindly thoughts in which it shared not the help of the flesh, shall it without the flesh receive its consolation. In short, inasmuch as we understand ‘the prison’ pointed out in the Gospel to be Hades, and as we also interpret ‘the uttermost farthing’ to mean the very smallest offence which has to be recompensed there before the resurrection, no one will hesitate to believe that the soul undergoes in Hades some compensatory discipline, without prejudice to the full process of the resurrection, when the recompense will be administered through the flesh besides.” Tertullian, A Treatise on the Soul, 58 (A.D. 210).

“As often as the anniversary comes round, we make offerings for the dead as birthday honours.” Tertullian, The Chaplut, 3 (A.D. 211).

“[A] woman is more bound when her husband is dead…Indeed, she prays for his soul, and requests refreshment for him meanwhile, and fellowship (with him) in the first resurrection; and she offers (her sacrifice) on the anniversary of his falling asleep.” Tertullian, On Monogamy, 10 (A.D. 216).

“For if on the foundation of CHRIST you have built not only gold and silver and precious stones (1 Cor.,3); but also wood and hay and stubble, what do you expect when the soul shall be separated from the body? Would you enter into heaven with your wood and hay and stubble and thus defile the kingdom of God; or on account of these hindrances would you remain without and receive no reward for your gold and silver and precious stones; neither is this just. It remains then that you be committed to the fire which will burn the light materials; for our God to those who can comprehend heavenly things is called a cleansing fire. But this fire consumes not the creature, but what the creature has himself built, wood, and hay and stubble. It is manifest that the fire destroys the wood of our transgressions and then returns to us the reward of our great works.” Origen, Homilies on Jeremias, PG 13:445, 448 ( A.D. 244).

“For to adulterers even a time of repentance is granted by us, and peace is given. Yet virginity is not therefore deficient in the Church, nor does the glorious design of continence languish through the sins of others. The Church, crowned with so many virgins, flourishes; and chastity and modesty preserve the tenor of their glory. Nor is the vigour of continence broken down because repentance and pardon are facilitated to the adulterer. It is one thing to stand for pardon, another thing to attain to glory: it is one thing, when cast into prison, not to go out thence until one has paid the uttermost farthing; another thing at once to receive the wages of faith and courage. It is one thing, tortured by long suffering for sins, to be cleansed and long purged by fire; another to have purged all sins by suffering. It is one thing, in fine, to be in suspense till the sentence of God at the day of judgment; another to be at once crowned by the Lord.” Cyprian, To Antonianus, Epistle 51 (55):20 (A.D. 253).

“Let us pray for our brethren that are at rest in Christ, that God, the lover of mankind, who has received his soul, may forgive him every sin, voluntary and involuntary, and may be merciful and gracious to him, and give him his lot in the land of the pious that are sent into the bosom of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, with all those that have pleased Him and done His will from the beginning of the world, whence all sorrow, grief, and lamentation are banished.” Apostolic Constitutions, 8:4,41 (3rd Century).

“The same divine fire, therefore, with one and the same force and power, will both burn the wicked and will form them again, and will replace as much as it shall consume of their bodies, and will supply itself with eternal nourishment: which the poets transferred to the vulture of Tityus. Thus, without any wasting of bodies, which regain their substance, it will only burn and affect them with a sense of pain. But when He shall have judged the righteous, He will also try them with fire. Then they whose sins shall exceed either in weight or in number, shall be scorched by the fire and burnt: but they whom full justice and maturity of virtue has imbued will not perceive that fire; for they have something of God in themselves which repels and rejects the violence of the flame.” Lactantius, The Divine Institutes, 7:21 (A.D. 307).

"Then we commemorate also those who have fallen asleep before us, first Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, Martyrs, that at their prayers and intercessions God would receive our petition. Then on behalf also of the Holy Fathers and Bishops who have fallen asleep before us, and in a word of all who in past years have fallen asleep among us, believing that it will be a very great benefit to the souls, for whom the supplication is put up, while that holy and most awful sacrifice is set forth. And I wish to persuade you by an illustration. For I know that many say, what is a soul profited, which departs from this world either with sins, or without sins, if it be commemorated in the prayer? For if a king were to banish certain who had given him of-fence, and then those who belong to them should weave a crown and offer it to him on behalf of those under punishment, would he not grant a remission of their penalties? In the same way we, when we offer to Him our supplications for those who have fallen asleep, though they be sinners, weave no crown, but offer up Christ sacrificed for our sins, propitiating our merciful God for them as well as for ourselves.” Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechetical Lectures, 23:9,10 (c. A.D. 350).

“I think that the noble athletes of God, who have wrestled all their lives with the invisible enemies, after they have escaped all of their persecutions and have come to the end of life, are examined by the prince of this world; and if they are found to have any wounds from their wrestling, any stains or effects of sin, they are detained. If, however they are found unwounded and without stain, they are, as unconquered, brought by Christ into their rest.” Basil, Homilies on the Psalms, 7:2 (ante A.D. 370).

“Lay me not with sweet spices: for this honour avails me not; Nor yet incense and perfumes: for the honour benefits me not. Burn sweet spices in the Holy Place: and me, even me, conduct to the grave with prayer. Give ye incense to God: and over me send up hymns. Instead of perfumes of spices: in prayer make remembrance of me.” Ephraem, His Testament (ante A.D. 373).

“Useful too is the prayer fashioned on their [the dead’s] behalf…it is useful, because in this world we often stumble either voluntarily or involuntarily.” Epiphanius, Panarion, 75:8 (A.D. 375).

“When he has quitted his body and the difference between virtue and vice is known he cannot approach God till the purging fire shall have cleansed the stains with which his soul was infested. That same fire in others will cancel the corruption of matter, and the propensity to evil.” Gregory of Nyssa, Sermon on the Dead, PG 13:445,448 (ante A.D. 394).

“Give, Oh Lord, rest to Thy servant Theodosius, that rest Thou hast prepared for Thy saints…I love him, therefore will I follow him to the land of the living; I will not leave him till by my prayers and lamentations he shall be admitted unto the holy mount of the Lord,to which his deserts call him.” Ambrose, De obitu Theodosii, PL 16:1397 (A.D. 395).

“Other husbands scatter on the graves of their wives violets, roses, lilies, and purple flowers; and assuage the grief of their hearts by fulfilling this tender duty. Our dear Pammachius also waters the holy ashes and the revered bones of Paulina, but it is with the balm of almsgiving.” Jerome, To Pammachius, Epistle 66:5 (A.D. 397).

“Weep for the unbelievers; weep for those who differ in nowise from them, those who depart hence without the illumination, without the seal! They indeed deserve our wailing, they deserve our groans; they are outside the Palace, with the culprits, with the condemned: for, “Verily I say unto you, Except a man be born of water and the Spirit, he shall not enter into the kingdom of Heaven.” Mourn for those who have died in wealth, and did not from their wealth think of any solace for their soul, who had power to wash away their sins and would not. Let us all weep for these in private and in public, but with propriety, with gravity, not so as to make exhibitions of ourselves; let us weep for these, not one day, or two, but all our life. Such tears spring not from senseless passion, but from true affection. The other sort are of senseless passion. For this cause they are quickly quenched, whereas if they spring from the fear of God, they always abide with us. Let us weep for these; let us assist them according to our power; let us think of some assistance for them, small though it be, yet still let us assist them. How and in what way? By praying and entreating others to make prayers for them, by continually giving to the poor on their behalf.” John Chrysostom, Homilies on Phillipians, 3 (ante A.D. 404).

“If the baptized person fulfills the obligations demanded of a Christian, he does well. If he does not–provided he keeps the faith, without which he would perish forever–no matter in what sin or impurity remains, he will be saved, as it were, by fire; as one who has built on the foundation, which is Christ, not gold, silver, and precious stones, but wood, hay straw, that is, not just and chasted works but wicked and unchaste works.” Augustine, Faith and Works, 1:1 (A.D. 413).

“Now on what ground does this person pray that he may not be 'rebuked in indignation, nor chastened in hot displeasure”? He speaks as if he would say unto God, ‘Since the things which I already suffer are many in number, I pray Thee let them suffice;’ and he begins to enumerate them, by way of satisfying God; offering what he suffers now, that he may not have to suffer worse evils hereafter." Augustine, Exposition of the Psalms, 38(37):3 (A.D. 418).

“And it is not impossible that something of the same kind may take place even after this life. It is a matter that may be inquired into, and either ascertained or left doubtful, whether some believers shall pass through a kind of purgatorial fire, and in proportion as they have loved with more or less devotion the goods that perish, be less or more quickly delivered from it. This cannot, however, be the case of any of those of whom it is said, that they ‘shall not inherit the kingdom of God,’ unless after suitable repentance their sins be forgiven them. When I say ‘suitable,’ I mean that they are not to be unfruitful in almsgiving; for Holy Scripture lays so much stress on this virtue, that our Lord tells us beforehand, that He will ascribe no merit to those on His right hand but that they abound in it, and no defect to those on His left hand but their want of it, when He shall say to the former, “Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom,” and to the latter, ‘Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire.’” Augustine, Enchiridion, 69 (A.D. 421).

“During the time, moreover, which intervenes between a man’s death and the final resurrection, the soul dwells in a hidden retreat, where it enjoys rest or suffers affliction just in proportion to the merit it has earned by the life which it led on earth.” Augustine, Enchiridion, 1099 (A.D. 421).

“For our part, we recognize that even in this life some punishments are purgatorial,–not, indeed, to those whose life is none the better, but rather the worse for them, but to those who are constrained by them to amend their life. All other punishments, whether temporal or eternal, inflicted as they are on every one by divine providence, are sent either on account of past sins, or of sins presently allowed in the life, or to exercise and reveal a man’s graces. They may be inflicted by the instrumentality of bad men and angels as well as of the good. For even if any one suffers some hurt through another’s wickedness or mistake, the man indeed sins whose ignorance or injustice does the harm; but God, who by His just though hidden judgment permits it to be done, sins not. But temporary punishments are suffered by some in this life only, by others after death, by others both now and then; but all of them before that last and strictest judgment. But of those who suffer temporary punishments after death, all are not doomed to those everlasting pains which are to follow that judgment; for to some, as we have already said, what is not remitted in this world is remitted in the next, that is, they are not punished with the eternal punishment of the world to come.” Augustine, City of God, 21:13 (A.D. 426).

"But since she has this certainty regarding no man, she prays for all her enemies who yet live in this world; and yet she is not heard in behalf of all. But she is heard in the case of those only who, though they oppose the Church, are yet predestinated to become her sons through her intercession…For some of the dead, indeed, the prayer of the Church or of pious individuals is heard; but it is for those who, having been regenerated in Christ, did not spend their life so wickedly that they can be judged unworthy of such compassion, nor so well that they can be considered to have no need of it. As also, after the resurrection, there will be some of the dead to whom, after they have endured the pains proper to the spirits of the dead, mercy shall be accorded, and acquittal from the punishment of the eternal fire. For were there not some whose sins, though not remitted in this life, shall be remitted in that which is to come, it could not be truly said, “They shall not be forgiven, neither in this world, neither in that which is to come.’ But when the Judge of quick and dead has said, ‘Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world,’ and to those on the other side, ‘Depart from me, ye cursed, into the eternal fire, which is prepared for the devil and his angels,’ and ‘These shall go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life,’ it were excessively presumptuous to say that the punishment of any of those whom God has said shall go away into eternal punishment shall not be eternal, and so bring either despair or doubt upon the corresponding promise of life eternal.” Augustine, City of God,2 1:24 (A.D. 426).

“If we neither give thanks to God in tribulations nor redeem our own sins by good works, we shall have to remain in that purgatorian fire as long as it takes for those above-mentioned lesser sins to be consumed like wood and straw and hay.” Ceasar of Arles, Sermon 179 (104):2 (A.D. 542).

“Each one will be presented to the Judge exactly as he was when he departed this life. Yet, there must be a cleansing fire before judgment, because of some minor faults that may remain to be purged away. Does not Christ, the Truth, say that if anyone blasphemes against the Holy Spirit he shall not be forgiven ‘either in this world or in the world to come’(Mt. 12:32)? From this statement we learn that some sins can be forgiven in this world and some in the world to come. For, if forgiveness is refused for a particular sin, we conclude logically that it is granted for others. This must apply, as I said, to slight transgressions.” Gregory the Great [regn. A.D. 590-604], Dialogues, 4:39 (A.D. 594).

Source: Iman Katolik .....Media Informasi dan Sarana Katekese

Best Regard,
Daniel FS

Sebelumnya, saya akan sortir dulu bahan mana yang kiranya bersangkutan dengan Purgatory dan bersifat valid.

Data Tahun 100 AD s/d 199 AD

"And after the exhibition, Tryphaena again receives her. For her daughter Falconilla had died, and said to her in a dream: Mother, thou shaft have this stranger Thecla in my place, in order that she may pray concerning me, and that [b]I may be transferred to the place of the just."[/b] Acts of Paul and Thecla (A.D. 160).

Nantinya kita akan bahas kalimat “I may be transferred to the place of the just”.

"Abercius by name, I am a disciple of the chaste shepherd...He taught me…faithful writings...These words, I, Abercius, standing by, ordered to be inscribed. In truth, I was in the course of my seventy-second year. Let him who understands and believes this [b]pray for Abercius."[/b] Inscription of Abercius (A.D. 190).

Hal ini tidak menjelaskan sama sekali mengenai Purgatory melainkan mengenai berdoa bagi orang yang telah wafat (Requiem) karena hanya dijelaskan mengenai “pray for Abercius”.

Best Regard,
Daniel FS

Data Tahun 200 AD s/d 299 AD

"Without delay, on that very night, this was shown to me in a vision. I saw Dinocrates going out from a gloomy place, where also there were several others, and he was parched and very thirsty, with a filthy countenance and pallid colour, and the wound on his face which he had when he died. This Dinocrates had been my brother after the flesh, seven years of age? Who died miserably with disease...[b]But I trusted that my prayer would bring help to his suffering[/b]; and I prayed for him every day until we passed over into the prison of the camp, for we were to fight in the camp-show. Then was the birth-day of Gets Caesar, and I made my prayer for my brother day and night, groaning and weeping that he might be granted to me. Then, on the day on which we remained in fetters, this was shown to me. I saw that that place which I had formerly observed to be in gloom was now bright; and Dinocrates, with a clean body well clad, [b]was finding refreshment.[/b] And where there had been a wound, I saw a scar; and that pool which I had before seen, I saw now with its margin lowered even to the boy's navel. And one drew water from the pool incessantly, and upon its brink was a goblet filled with water; and Dinocrates drew near and began to drink from it, and the goblet did not fail. And when he was satisfied, he went away from the water to play joyously, after the manner of children, and I awoke. Then I understood that he was translated from the place of punishment." The Passion of Perpetua and Felicitias, 2:3-4 (A.D. 202).

Ini juga data yang cukup menarik untuk didiskusikan…

"Accordingly the believer, through great discipline, divesting himself of the passions, passes to the mansion which is better than the former one, viz., to the greatest torment, taking with him the characteristic of repentance from the sins he has committed after baptism. He is tortured then still more--not yet or not quite attaining what he sees others to have acquired. Besides, he is also ashamed of his transgressions. The greatest torments, indeed, are assigned to the believer. For God's righteousness is good, and His goodness is righteous. And though the punishments cease in the course of the completion of the expiation and purification of each one, yet those have very great and permanent grief who are found worthy of the other fold, on account of not being along with those that have been glorified through righteousness." Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, 6:14 (post A.D. 202).
"[T]hat allegory of the Lord which is extremely clear and simple in its meaning, and ought to be from the first understood in its plain and natural sense...Then, again, should you be disposed to apply the term 'adversary' to the devil, you are advised by the (Lord's) injunction, while you are in the way with him, 'to make even with him such a compact as may be deemed compatible with the requirements of your true faith. Now the compact you have made respecting him is to renounce him, and his pomp, and his angels. Such is your agreement in this matter. Now the friendly understanding you will have to carry out must arise from your observance of the compact: you must never think of getting back any of the things which you have abjured, and have restored to him, lest he should summon you as a fraudulent man, and a transgressor of your agreement, before God the Judge (for in this light do we read of him, in another passage, as 'the accuser of the brethren,' or saints, where reference is made to the actual practice of legal prosecution); and lest this Judge deliver you over to the angel who is to execute the sentence, and he commit you to the prison of hell, out of which there will be no dismissal until the smallest even of your delinquencies be paid off in the period before the resurrection. What can be a more fitting sense than this? What a truer interpretation?" Tertullian, A Treatise on the Soul, 35 (A.D. 210).

“All souls, therefore; are shut up within Hades: do you admit this? It is true, whether you say yes or no: moreover, there are already experienced there punishments and consolations; and there you have a poor man and a rich…Moreover, the soul executes not all its operations with the ministration of the flesh; for the judgment of God pursues even simple cogitations and the merest volitions. ‘Whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.’ Therefore, even for this cause it is most fitting that the soul, without at all waiting for the flesh, should be punished for what it has done without the partnership of the flesh. So, on the same principle, in return for the pious and kindly thoughts in which it shared not the help of the flesh, shall it without the flesh receive its consolation. In short, inasmuch as we understand ‘the prison’ pointed out in the Gospel to be Hades, and as we also interpret ‘the uttermost farthing’ to mean the very smallest offence which has to be recompensed there before the resurrection, no one will hesitate to believe that the soul undergoes in Hades some compensatory discipline, without prejudice to the full process of the resurrection, when the recompense will be administered through the flesh besides.” Tertullian, A Treatise on the Soul, 58 (A.D. 210).

“As often as the anniversary comes round, we make offerings for the dead as birthday honours.” Tertullian, The Chaplut, 3 (A.D. 211).

“[A] woman is more bound when her husband is dead…Indeed, she prays for his soul, and requests refreshment for him meanwhile, and fellowship (with him) in the first resurrection; and she offers (her sacrifice) on the anniversary of his falling asleep.” Tertullian, On Monogamy, 10 (A.D. 216).

Data dari tulisan Tertullian saya dan Gereja Orthodox menolak seluruhnya, karena Tertullian adalah seorang penganut Gereja Heretik Montanis sehingga dipandang memiliki penyimpangan doktrin yang Orthodox (dan kita tidak pernah tahu kapan penyimpangan itu terjadi), bahkan dalam skala yang lebih utama yaitu dogma Trinitas (Tertullian menyatakan bahwa prinsip Trinitas adalah Modalisme).

"For if on the foundation of CHRIST you have built not only gold and silver and precious stones (1 Cor.,3); but also wood and hay and stubble, what do you expect when the soul shall be separated from the body? Would you enter into heaven with your wood and hay and stubble and thus defile the kingdom of God; or on account of these hindrances would you remain without and receive no reward for your gold and silver and precious stones; neither is this just. It remains then that you be committed to the fire which will burn the light materials; for our God to those who can comprehend heavenly things is called a cleansing fire. But this fire consumes not the creature, but what the creature has himself built, wood, and hay and stubble. [b]It is manifest that the fire destroys the wood of our transgressions and then returns to us the reward of our great works."[/b] Origen, Homilies on Jeremias, PG 13:445, 448 ( A.D. 244).
"For to adulterers even a time of repentance is granted by us, and peace is given. Yet virginity is not therefore deficient in the Church, nor does the glorious design of continence languish through the sins of others. The Church, crowned with so many virgins, flourishes; and chastity and modesty preserve the tenor of their glory. Nor is the vigour of continence broken down because repentance and pardon are facilitated to the adulterer. It is one thing to stand for pardon, another thing to attain to glory: it is one thing, when cast into prison, not to go out thence until one has paid the uttermost farthing; another thing at once to receive the wages of faith and courage. It is one thing, [b]tortured by long suffering for sins, to be cleansed and long purged by fire; another to have purged all sins by suffering[/b]. It is one thing, in fine, to be in suspense till the sentence of God at the day of judgment; another to be at once crowned by the Lord." Cyprian, To Antonianus, Epistle 51 (55):20 (A.D. 253).

Data ini sama menariknya…

Lainnya akan saya periksa secara bertahap…

Best Regard,
Daniel FS

Hal ini tidak menjelaskan sama sekali mengenai Purgatory melainkan mengenai berdoa bagi orang yang telah wafat (Requiem) karena hanya dijelaskan mengenai "pray for Abercius".

Inkripsi Abercius bisa dibaca disini :

http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/abercius.html

1. The citizens of an eminent city, I made this (tomb) 2. In my lifetime, that I might have here a resting-place for my body. ..........................................................................................

Di point 1, sudah dikatakan bahwa inkripsi itu ada di makam Abercius, dan dia sendiri kelihatan sudah mempersiapkan untuk di taruh di makamnya (point 2).

Lagian doa seperti ini juga ada di Liturgi Rasul Yakobus dan Markus yang digunakan secara luas di Gereja Orthodox Timur dan Katolik Timur. Saya kurang begitu jelas, doa untuk orang mati bagi Gereja Timur tujuannya untuk apa? Kalau tidak salah terkait Final Theosis, jadi orang yang sudah di sorga tapi belum mencapai Final Theosis masih terus didoakan. CMIIW.

Data dari tulisan Tertullian saya dan Gereja Orthodox menolak seluruhnya, karena Tertullian adalah seorang penganut Gereja Heretik Montanis sehingga dipandang memiliki penyimpangan doktrin yang Orthodox (dan kita tidak pernah tahu kapan penyimpangan itu terjadi), bahkan dalam skala yang lebih utama yaitu dogma Trinitas (Tertullian menyatakan bahwa prinsip Trinitas adalah Modalisme).

Ya betul, Tertullian akhirnya jatuh ke dalam bidat Montanisme (semacam pentecostalism dalam dunia sekarang). IMO yang perlu diverifikasi adalah, apakah tulisan-tulisan Tertullian ada yang sudah diadopsi menjadi ajaran gereja melalui konsili? Kalau ada, kita tidak bisa menolak ajaran tersebut, misalnya ajaran Trinitas.

Tertullian was the first Christian writer to face a serious attack concerning the nature of God. In response, he outlined a formula summarising the Biblical teaching on this, [b]and was the first to use the word trinitas in a technical way to describe the relation of God the Father, JESUS, and the Holy Spirit. [/b]

Kita tidak bisa menolak keseluruhan tulisan Tertullian sebelum dia jatuh ke dalam bidat Montanis/pentecostalist tersebut. Saya tidak tau metode apa yang akan kita gunakan untuk verifikasi. Yang jelas salah satu tulisan beliau yaitu rumusan Trinitas banyak kita pakai sekarang ini.

Saya baca pengantar di situsnya, bahwa Cyprian juga sangat mengagumi tulisan-tulisan Tertullian meskipun dia sudah jatu ke dalam bidat Montanis/pentecostalist.

............But his legacy was the very shape of Latin Christianity 23. [b]St Cyprian[/b] never went a day without reading him, and called him 'the master'24...................

Semoga kita ada waktu untuk menggali

Shalom Aleikhem

Yap, oleh karena itu, Inskripsi Abercius ini tidak tersangkut dengan ada/tidaknya Purgatory, melainkan tentang Tradisi Rasuli mendoakan orang mati (Requiem).

Saya kurang begitu jelas, doa untuk orang mati bagi Gereja Timur tujuannya untuk apa? Kalau tidak salah terkait Final Theosis, jadi orang yang sudah di sorga tapi belum mencapai Final Theosis masih terus didoakan. CMIIW.

Tujuan Requiem dalam Gereja Orthodox Timur:

  1. Mengenang dan meneladani hidup mereka (bagi mereka yang ditinggalkan).
  2. Memberkati mereka dan membantu agar meningkat dari satu kemuliaan kepada kemuliaan yang lebih tinggi.
Ya betul, Tertullian akhirnya jatuh ke dalam bidat Montanisme (semacam pentecostalism dalam dunia sekarang). IMO yang perlu diverifikasi adalah, apakah tulisan-tulisan Tertullian ada yang sudah diadopsi menjadi ajaran gereja melalui konsili? Kalau ada, kita tidak bisa menolak ajaran tersebut, misalnya ajaran Trinitas.

Kalau hanya masalah label sebutan ya memang tidak apa-apa karena konsepnya sudah ada sebelumnya, namun kalau masuk dalam kaidah Theologi yang lebih dalam akan sangat membingungkan karena kita tidak pernah tahu tulisan Tertullian mana yang mulai bias kepada Montanisme. Dan Montanisme merupakan heresy yang serius karena telah sesat secara dogma Trinitas (Modalisme), jadi tidak dapat disamakan dengan Pentakostalis.

He (Tertullian) wrote his trinitarian formula after becoming a Montanist;

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tertullian

Tertullian was the first Christian writer to face a serious attack concerning the nature of God. In response, he outlined a formula summarising the Biblical teaching on this, [b]and was the first to use the word trinitas in a technical way to describe the relation of God the Father, JESUS, and the Holy Spirit. [/b]

Kita tidak bisa menolak keseluruhan tulisan Tertullian sebelum dia jatuh ke dalam bidat Montanis/pentecostalist tersebut. Saya tidak tau metode apa yang akan kita gunakan untuk verifikasi. Yang jelas salah satu tulisan beliau yaitu rumusan Trinitas banyak kita pakai sekarang ini.

Oleh karena itu anggap saja pada Thread ini kita amat sangat ketat dalam menguji Tradisi Rasuli berupa tulisan Bapa Gereja. Menghindari bias ini maka dari awal saya menolak seluruh data dari Tertullianus.

Saya baca pengantar di situsnya, bahwa Cyprian juga sangat mengagumi tulisan-tulisan Tertullian meskipun dia sudah jatu ke dalam bidat Montanis/pentecostalist.
............But his legacy was the very shape of Latin Christianity 23. [b]St Cyprian[/b] never went a day without reading him, and called him 'the master'24...................

Semoga kita ada waktu untuk menggali

Shalom Aleikhem

Yap, kalau cuma Thelegoumena (pendapat/asumsi pribadi) ya boleh-boleh saja.
Misalnya saya juga suka dengan Napoleon Bonaparte, maka bukan berarti sifat saya sama dengan atau menyetujui semua hal tentang Napoleon Bonaparte.

Best Regard,
Daniel FS

Saya mulai bahas yang pertama,

"And after the exhibition, Tryphaena again receives her. For her daughter Falconilla had died, and said to her in a dream: Mother, thou shaft have this stranger Thecla in my place, in order that she may pray concerning me, and that I may be transferred to the place of the just." Acts of Paul and Thecla (A.D. 160).

Apa yang dimaksud “that I may be transferred to the place of the just”?
Apakah artinya dipindahkan dari Purgatory kedalam Sorga?
Jika dapat dipindahkan kedalam Sorga, maka apa fungsi dari Penghakiman Akhir (Final Judgement) sedangkan manusia sudah menerima kepenuhan upah dalam Sorga?

Best Regard,
Daniel FS

Apa yang dimaksud "that I may be transferred to the place of the just"? Apakah artinya dipindahkan dari Purgatory kedalam Sorga? Jika dapat dipindahkan kedalam Sorga, maka apa fungsi dari Penghakiman Akhir (Final Judgement) sedangkan manusia sudah menerima kepenuhan upah dalam Sorga?

Dalam katekismus Gereja Katolik, Purgatory tidak dijelaskan berupa suatu tempat, tapi adalah kondisi suffering yang bukan neraka.

1031. "The Church gives the name Purgatory to this final purification of the elect, which is entirely different from the punishment of the damned

Tapi kadang untuk penjelasan sering dianalogikan sebagai tempat. Terkait pertanyaan Anda, sebenarnya ada atau tidaknya purgatory tidak ada hubungannya dengan penghakiman terakhir. Karena di penghakiman terakhir, tubuh dan jiwa akan disatukan kembali, terlepas dari jiwa itu di sorga, di tempat penyiksaan atau dimanapun berada. Akan disatukan dan dibangkitkan kemudian dihakimi dalam penghakiman terakhir. Kalau pada penghakiman khusus jiwa/roh saja yang dihakimi, maka pada penghakiman terakhir tubuh juga ikut dihakimi. Lebih lengkapnya bisa dibaca disini :

Kalau hanya masalah label sebutan ya memang tidak apa-apa karena konsepnya sudah ada sebelumnya, namun kalau masuk dalam kaidah Theologi yang lebih dalam akan sangat membingungkan karena kita tidak pernah tahu tulisan Tertullian mana yang mulai bias kepada Montanisme. Dan Montanisme merupakan heresy yang serius karena telah sesat secara dogma Trinitas (Modalisme), jadi tidak dapat disamakan dengan Pentakostalis.
Mungkin seperti yang saya bilang di depan. Mekanisme konsili tetap menjadi rujukan terakhir dalam menentukan sah/tidaknya suatu ajaran. Tulisan siapapun (termasuk orang yang berakhir menjadi bidat), setelah diuji dan disahkan dalam konsili akan menjadi ajaran yang mengikat, bukan memandang orangnya saja, tapi apa yang diajarkannya. IMO konsili ini tidak dibatasi berhenti pada 7 konsili ekumenis, tapi di saat kita perlu mengadakan konsili karena suatu masalah. AFAIK sistem seperti ini selain dicontohkan oleh para rasul, juga masih menjadi rujukan sampai pada jaman reformasi (tercatat dalam 16 dokumen dasar Calvinisme).

Maaf kalau saya salah, karena banyak artikel yang mengatakan Montanis identik dengan pentecostalism, atau pentecostalism diistilahkan Neo-Montanism. IMO seperti theologi JESUS Only dari Oneness Pentecostal adalah modalism juga, hanya saja diakhiri dengan 1 nama YESUS :).

Salam Damai

Ya, saya sudah tahu, kata “tempat” ini hanya untuk memudahkan penyebutan saja.

1031. "The Church gives the name Purgatory to this final purification of the elect, which is entirely different from the punishment of the damned

Tapi kadang untuk penjelasan sering dianalogikan sebagai tempat. Terkait pertanyaan Anda, sebenarnya ada atau tidaknya purgatory tidak ada hubungannya dengan penghakiman terakhir. Karena di penghakiman terakhir, tubuh dan jiwa akan disatukan kembali, terlepas dari jiwa itu di sorga, di tempat penyiksaan atau dimanapun berada. Akan disatukan dan dibangkitkan kemudian dihakimi dalam penghakiman terakhir. Kalau pada penghakiman khusus jiwa/roh saja yang dihakimi, maka pada penghakiman terakhir tubuh juga ikut dihakimi. Lebih lengkapnya bisa dibaca disini :

http://katolisitas.org/2009/04/01/pengadilan-khusus-dan-pengadilan-umum/

Baik, saya paham, jadi dalam Acts of Paul dan Thecla itu mengacu pada apakah perpindahannya?

Kalau hanya masalah label sebutan ya memang tidak apa-apa karena konsepnya sudah ada sebelumnya, namun kalau masuk dalam kaidah Theologi yang lebih dalam akan sangat membingungkan karena kita tidak pernah tahu tulisan Tertullian mana yang mulai bias kepada Montanisme. Dan Montanisme merupakan heresy yang serius karena telah sesat secara dogma Trinitas (Modalisme), jadi tidak dapat disamakan dengan Pentakostalis.
Mungkin seperti yang saya bilang di depan. Mekanisme konsili tetap menjadi rujukan terakhir dalam menentukan sah/tidaknya suatu ajaran. Tulisan siapapun (termasuk orang yang berakhir menjadi bidat), setelah diuji dan disahkan dalam konsili akan menjadi ajaran yang mengikat, bukan memandang orangnya saja, tapi apa yang diajarkannya. IMO konsili ini tidak dibatasi berhenti pada 7 konsili ekumenis, tapi di saat kita perlu mengadakan konsili karena suatu masalah. AFAIK sistem seperti ini selain dicontohkan oleh para rasul, juga masih menjadi rujukan sampai pada jaman reformasi (tercatat dalam 16 dokumen dasar Calvinisme).

Sebagaimana pandangan saya, Gereja Orthodox Timur juga tidak pernah menganggap Tertullian sebagai Bapa Gereja.

Maaf kalau saya salah, karena banyak artikel yang mengatakan Montanis identik dengan pentecostalism, atau pentecostalism diistilahkan Neo-Montanism. IMO seperti theologi JESUS Only dari Oneness Pentecostal adalah modalism juga, hanya saja diakhiri dengan 1 nama YESUS :).

Salam Damai

Mirip dalam hal penitikberatan pada karunia Roh Kudus saja, namun tidak dalam Modalisme (kecuali Oneness Pentecostal yang Anda sebutkan) sedangkan Modalisme adalah issue yang menyangkut pada dogma Gereja, baik Orthodox maupun Katolik.

Padahal perumusan Trinitas oleh Tertullian itu justru sesudah ia menjadi Montanis.

Best Regard,
Daniel FS

bro daniel bisa tolong jelaskan apa pulgatory dan fungsinya menurut Gereja Orthodox Timur? saya hanya ingin tahu saja,apakah ada perbedaan dari pulgatory dari gereja khatolik ,tks.

Gereja Orthodox Timur menolak doktrin Purgatory, jadi tidak ada Purgatory.
Hanya Gereja Katolik Roma yang menganut doktrin Purgatory.

Best Regard,
Daniel FS

@Bro Daniel

Bisa dijelaskan dulu, setau saya Gereja Orthodox Timur juga mendoakan orang mati. Tujuannya untuk apa? Maksud saya mungkin bisa membantu kesalah pahaman persepsi terkait purgatory ini.

Thanks

Lho, sudah kan pada Posting #5.
Saya copas saja,
Tujuan Requiem (mendoakan orang mati) dalam Gereja Orthodox Timur:

  1. Mengenang dan meneladani hidup mereka (bagi yang ditinggalkan).
  2. Memberkati mereka dan membantu agar meningkat dari satu kemuliaan kepada kemuliaan yang lebih tinggi.

Best Regard,
Daniel FS

[email protected] FS.
uuihh…berat nih…!!
SO…ALASAN MENDASRNYA APA YA BROO…??
KOK yang satunya menolak dan yang satuna ok…bgitu…??
Mohon diceritain ya broo…!! abis berat banget kalo mau menyelidikinya sampe begitu rupa seperti broo @Daniel FS sudah lakukan.
THX before.
Salam…TYB

oh bgtu, sory bro habis ada tulisan " yang dianggap sebagai Purgatory dalam pandangan Gereja Orthodox Timur." .

salam

bro Daniel,

saya menantikan informasi penting ttg perkembangan awal (munculnya) doktrin purgatory dari GK. misalnya situasi sosial, pemikiran teologi yg berkembang (popular) pd waktu itu, pemahaman filsafat atau mistik yg mungkin saja memberikan pengaruh besar terhadap bapa gereja sehingga memunculkan doktrin ini.

con: martin luther menolak doktrin ini, disamping alasan teologis, juga karena banyaknya penyelewengan yg dilakukan gereja pd waktu itu (faktor sosial, psikologis). (ini seklumit info yg saya tahu)

mungkin bro bisa bantu, krn saya mencari di beberapa sumber, belum ketemu.

thx.

Lho, sudah kan pada Posting #5. Saya copas saja, Tujuan Requiem (mendoakan orang mati) dalam Gereja Orthodox Timur: 1) Mengenang dan meneladani hidup mereka (bagi yang ditinggalkan). 2) Memberkati mereka dan membantu agar meningkat dari satu kemuliaan kepada kemuliaan yang lebih tinggi.

Best Regard,
Daniel FS

Maaf kelewat baca :). Fokusnya kepada yang No. 2. Saat kita mati, menurut Gereja Orthodox langsung masuk ke sorga dengan berbagi tingkat yang berbeda-beda?

Kisah Paulus dan Techla digunakan untuk mendukung Purgatory, karena menurut doktrin ini, ada state dimana ada penderitaan aferlife. Just place disitu, saya tidak berani mengatakan itu dimana. Ini mungkin mirip tingkatan-tingkatan seperti konsep Theosis, bisa dibawah itu atau beririsan kondisinya dengan Theosis.

Saya berusaha untuk tidak mengutip ALkitab kanon di thread ini karena nanti OOT.

Salam Damai

Yang mendasarinya adalah konsep pemahaman Tradisi Rasuli yang berbeda, bagi Orthodox Timur konsep Tradisi Rasuli adalah Statis, sedangkan bagi Katolik Roma konsep Tradisi Rasulinya adalah berkembang. Purgatory adalah salah satu perkembangan dari Tradisi Rasuli tersebut.

Best Regard,
Daniel FS

Ya, setelah saya baca kalimat saya itu ambigu, bisa maksudnya:

  1. Purgatory dalam pandangan Gereja Orthodox Timur.
  2. Bagaimana Gereja Orthodox Timur memandang doktrin Purgatory Gereja Katolik Roma.
    Mungkin karena tulisan sehingga agak sulit menekankan pengertiannya, apalagi saya kurang pandai merangkai kata, maaf jika terjadi salah pengertian… selanjutnya arti tulisan itu mengacu pada point 2.

Best Regard,
Daniel FS

@ brother Danielfs

Pegangan Gereja Orthodox yg menolak doktrin Api Penyucian berasal dari tradisi Bapa Gereja the latest tahun berapa?
Dan kalau boleh tau, siapa saja dan apa aja ajaran mereka (yg tdk mengajarkan Purgatory)?

@ brother fantioz
kalau boleh tahu, dari tradisi Bapa gereja siapa sajakah ajaran Purgatory itu? dan apa saja ajarannya?

**this is really honest question. because i want to know the history about it.
many thanks for any answers.

GBU