Patung dan image dalam pandangan Alkitab dan Bapa Gereja penerus iman Rasuli

St Lukas (33 AD) painted this Icon of Mary (about the year 60 AD) while she was staying with St. John the Apostle. According to tradition, when St. Luke “wrote” the Icon, he accurately rendered the Blessed Virgin’s authentic facial features.

The Icon was written directly onto a three foot by five foot cedar plank, believed to be part of a table that Jesus had originally hand crafted during his time in Nazareth. When Mary went to stay with St. John, in Ephesus (a town located in southwestern Turkey) the table evidently made the trip, as well.

St. Ignatii (50 AD) certainly acknowledges that there are visions from God which are shown to those “who are renewed by the Holy Spirit, who put off the old Adam, and put on the New”.
“Thus,” he writes, “the holy Apostle Peter during prayer saw a notable sheet descending from heaven.
Thus, an angel appeared to Cornelius the centurion during prayer.
Thus, when Apostle Paul was praying in the Jerusalem temple, the Lord appeared to him and commanded him to immediately leave Jerusalem…”

Eusebius of Caesarea (263 AD):
But since I have come to mention this city, I do not think it right to omit a story that is worthy to be recorded also from those that come after us. For they say that the woman who had a haemorrhage, and who, as we learn from the sacred Gospels, found at the hands of our Saviour relief from her affliction, came to this place, and that her house was pointed out in the city, and that marvelous memorials of the good deed, which the Savior wrought upon her, still remained. For that there stood on a lofty stone at the gates of her house a bronze figure of a woman, bending on her knee and stretching forth her hands like a suppliant, while opposite to this there was another of the same material, an upright figure of a man, clothed in comely fashion in a double cloak and stretching out his hand to the woman; at his feet on the monument itself a strange species of herb was growing, which climbed up to the double cloak of bronze, and acted as an antidote to all kinds of diseases. This statue, they said, bore the likeness of the Lord Jesus. And it was in existence even to our day, so that we saw it with out own eyes when we stayed in the city.

St. John Chrysostom (347 AD):
“One way of coming to a knowledge of God is that which is provided by the whole of creation; and another, no less significant, is that which is offered by conscience, the whole of which we have expounded upon at greater length, showing you how you have a self-taught knowledge of what is good and of what is not so good, and how conscience urges all this upon you from within.
Two teachers, then, are given you from the beginning: creation and conscience.
Neither of them has a voice to speak out; they teach men in silence…”

“From the beginning God placed the knowledge of Himself in men, but the pagans awarded this knowledge to sticks and stones, doing wrong the truth to such an extent as they were able. For really, the truth remained unharmed, its own glory being immutable.
And how, O Paul, is it plain that God put this knowledge in them? ‘Because,’ he says, ‘what can be known of Him is manifested in them’ (Romans 1.19). But this is assertion, not proof.
Only reason it out for me, and show me that the knowledge of God was evident to them, and that they wilfully turned aside from it.
Whence, then, was it plain? Did He send them a voice from above? Of course not!
But He did something that was better able to draw them to Him than a voice: He put creation in front of them so that the wise and the simple, the Scythian and the barbarian, having learned by vision the beauty of what they saw, might mount up to God."

Macarius Magnes (350 AD):
Berenice, who once was mistress of a famous place, and honoured ruler of the great city of Edessa, having been delivered from an unclean issue of blood and speedily healed from a painful affection, whom many physicians tormented at many times, but increased the affection to the worst of maladies with no betterment at all, He made to be celebrated and famous in story till the present day in Mesopotamia, or rather in all the world - so great was her experience - for she was made whole by a touch of the saving hem of His garment. For the woman, having had the record of the deed itself nobly represented in bronze, gave it to her son, as something done recently, not long before.

Philostorgius (368 AD):
There is also the statue of the Saviour in the city of Paneas, a work of magnificent execution put up by the woman with the haemorrhage whom Christ healed, and erected on a notable site in the city… Now an herb grew up by the feet of our Saviour’s image and the reason for this was sought, for in the passage of time both the person portrayed and the reason for the monument had been forgotten; it stood in the open with nothing to cover it, and much of the body was buried in the dirt that kept falling upon it from highter ground especially in times of rain, the dirt covering the writing that explained each of the matters. An inquiry was therefore instituted, the buried part was dug out, and the writing was found that told the whole story… The Christians removed it and put it in the sacristy of the church. The pagans pulled it down, fastened ropes to the feet, and dragged it through the public square until it was broken up bit by bit and so destroyed. Only the head was left; that was seized by someone while the pagans were raising their clamor and speaking blasphemies and utterly disgraceful words against our Lord Jesus Christ, words such as no one had ever heard.

St. Cyrillius dari Alexandria (376 AD)

Jika kita membuat patung orang-orang saleh, kita tidak bermaksud untuk menyembahnya, melainkan agar kita pada waktu melihatnya didorong untuk mencontohnya (In Ps 113;16 MG 69, 1268)

Sozomen (400 AD):
Among so many remarkable events which occurred during the reign of Julian, I must not omit to mention one which affords a sign of the power of Christ, and proof of the Divine wrath against the emperor.
Having heard that at Caesarea Philippi, otherwise called Paneas, a city of Phonicia, there was a celebrated statue of Christ which had been erected by a woman whom the Lord had cured of a flow of blood, Julian commanded it to be taken down and a statue of himself erected in its place; but a violent fire from heaven fell upon it and broke off the parts contiguous to the breast; the head and neck were thrown prostrate, and it was transfixed to the ground with the face downwards at the point where the fracture of the bust was; and it has stood in that fashion from that day until now, full of the rust of the lightning. The statue of Christ was dragged around the city and mutilated by the pagans; but the Christians recovered the fragments, and deposited the statue in the church in which it is still preserved. Eusebius relates, that at the base of this statue grew an herb which was unknown to the physicians and empirics, but was efficacious in the cure of all disorders. It does not appear a matter of astonishment to me, that, after God had vouchsafed to dwell with men, he should condescend to bestow benefits upon them.

John Malalas (491 AD):
In his grief King Herod, the son of Philip, came from Judea, and a certain wealthy woman, living in the city of Paneas, called Bernice, approached him, wishing to set up a statue to Jesus, for she had been healed by him. As she did not dare to do this without imperial permission, she addressed a petition to King Herod, asking to set up a golden statue to the Saviour Christ in that city.

The petition ran as follows: To the august toparch Herod, lawgiver to Jews and Hellenes, king of Trachonitis, a petition and request from Bernice, a dignitary of the city of Paneas. Justice and benevolence and all other virtues crown your highness’s sacred head. Thus, since I know this, I have come with every good hope that I shall obtain my requests. My words as they progress will reveal to you what foundation there is for this present preamble. From my childhood I have been smitten with the affliction of an internal haemorrhage; I spent all my livelihood and wealth on doctors but found no cure. When I heard of the cures that Christ performs with His miracles, He who raises the dead, restores the blind to sight, drives demons out of mortals, and heals with a word all those wasting away from disease, I too ran to Him as to God. I noticed the crowd surrounding him and I was afraid to tell Him of my incurable disease in case he should recoil from the pollution of my affliction and be angry with me and the violence of the disease should strike me even more. I reasoned to myself that, if I were able to touch the fringe of His garment, I would certainly be healed. I touched Him, and the flow of blood was stopped and immediately I was healed. He, however, as though He knew in advance my heart’s purpose, cried out, Who touched Me? For power has gone out of Me. I went white with terror and lamented, thinking that the disease would return to me with greater force, and I fell before Him covering the ground with tears. I told Him of my boldness. Out of His goodness He took pity on me and confirmed my cure, saying, Be of good courage, My daughter, your faith has saved you. Go your way in peace. So, your august highness, grant your suppliant this worthy petition.

When King Herod heard the contents of this petition, he was amazed by the miracle and, fearing the mystery of the cure, said, This cure, woman, which was worked on you, is worthy of a greater statue. Go then and set up whatever kind of statue you wish to Him, honouring by the offering Him who healed you. Immediately, Bernice, who had formerly suffered from a haemorrhage, set up in the middle of her city of Paneas a statue of beaten bronze, mixing it with gold and silver, to the Lord God. This statue remains in the city of Paneas to the present day, having been moved not many years ago from the place where it stood in the middle of the city to a holy place, a house of prayer. This document was found in the city of Paneas in the house of a man called Bassus, a Jew who had become a Christian.

St John Climacus (579) writes in The Ladder that “the beginning of prayer consists in chasing away invading thoughts…”
The mind is to be freed from all thoughts and images and focused on the words of prayer.
Further in the chapter on prayer, St. John instructs not to accept any sensual images during prayer, lest the mind falls into insanity; and not to gaze upon even necessary and spiritual things.

St Isaac of Syria (700 AD), a bishop and theologian, writing centuries earlier, conveys a similar warning to those who desire visions, saying that such a person is “tempted in his mind by the devil who mocks him”

St. Germanus dari Konstantinopel (733 AD)

Jika kita menghormati gambar Kristus kita tidak menghormati kayu dan cat melainkan menyembah Allah yang tidak kelihatan dalam Roh dan Kebenaran.

St. Theodore of Studium (759 AD):
"If merely mental contemplation had been sufficient, it would have been enough for Him (GOD) to come to us in a merely mental way.”

St. Ignatii (Bryanchaninov) (1807 AD) categorically forbids seeking or expecting such “supernatural states”:
The praying mind must be in a fully truthful state.
Imagination, however alluring and well-appearing it may be, being the willful creation of the mind itself, brings the latter out of the state of Divine truth, and leads the mind into a state of self-praise and deception, and this is why it is rejected in prayer.

The mind during prayer must be very carefully kept without any images, rejecting all images, which are drawn in the ability of imagination…
Images, if the mind allows them during prayer, will become an impenetrable curtain, a wall between the mind and God.

[b]Christian art is nearly as old as Christianity itself. The earliest surviving art works are the painted frescoes on the walls of the catacombs and meeting houses of the persecuted Christians of the Roman Empire. The recently excavated Dura-Europos house church on the borders of Syria dates from around 265 holds many images from the persecution period.

St. Luke painted this Icon of Mary (about the year 60 AD) while she was staying with St. John the Apostle. According to tradition, when St. Luke “wrote” the Icon, he accurately rendered the Blessed Virgin’s authentic facial features.

The Icon was written directly onto a three foot by five foot cedar plank, believed to be part of a table that Jesus had originally hand crafted during his time in Nazareth. When Mary went to stay with St. John, in Ephesus (a town located in southwestern Turkey) the table evidently made the trip, as well.

Lost for over 200 years, the Icon was discovered by St. Helena (mother of Emperor Constantine) in Jerusalem, buried near the True Cross, on or about the year 326 AD.

The title of the Icon is Salus Populi Romani (“Protectoress of the Roman People”). It is the only major Icon attributed to Saint Luke (who is also the writer of the Gospel bearing his name, “the Acts of the Apostles” and most of St. Paul’s epistles.)

St. Luke is also believed to have been a physician (medical doctor).

Tradition and history informs us that St. Luke’s Icon has resided in St. Mary Major Basilica, Rome, for about 1,700 years.

In the Dura-Europos church, of about 230-256, which of the very early churches surviving is in the best condition, there are frescos of biblical scenes including a figure of Jesus, as well as Christ as the Good Shepherd. The building was a normal house apparently converted to use as a church. The earliest Christian paintings in the Catacombs of Rome are from a few decades before, and these represent the largest body of examples of Christian art from the pre-Constantinian period, with hundreds of examples decorating tombs or family tomb-chambers. Many are simple symbols, but there are numerous figure paintings either showing orants or female praying figures, usually representing the deceased person, or figures or shorthand scenes from the bible or Christian history.

In the 4th century, the Edict of Milan allowed public Christian worship and led to the development of a monumental Christian art.

Christ Jesus, the Good Shepherd, dating to the beginning of the 2nd century.

The Virgin Mary, from the middle of the 2nd century.

Jesus healing the bleeding woman, Roman catacombs, 300-350

Good Shepherd from the Catacomb of Priscilla, 250-300

The Protestant Reformation was a holocaust of art in many parts of Europe. Although Lutheranism was prepared to live with much existing Catholic art so long as it did not become a focus of devotion, the more radical views of Calvin, Zwingli and others saw public religious images of any sort as idolatry, and art was systematically destroyed in areas where their followers held sway. This destructive process continued until the mid-17th century, as religious wars brought periods of iconoclast Protestant control over much of the continent. In England and Scotland destruction of religious art, most intense during the English Commonwealth, was especially heavy. Some stone sculpture, illuminated manuscripts and stained glass windows (expensive to replace) survived, but of the thousands of high quality works of painted and wood-carved art produced in medieval Britain, virtually none remain.

Dikisahkan bahwa selama era pengejaran dan penyiksaan umat Kristiani di awal berdirinya gereja, seorang pengikut Kristus yang bertemu dengan orang yang baru dikenalnya akan menggambar sebuah lengkungan sederhana di atas tanah. Apabila orang lain tersebut adalah juga seorang Kristiani maka ia akan melengkapi gambar tersebut menjadi seekor ikan dengan menggambar lengkungan kedua. Apabila orang lain tersebut ternyata bukan seorang Kristiani, maka ketidak-jelasan gambar sebuah lengkungan tidak akan menghubungkan orang yang pertama tersebut sebagai seorang pengikut Kristus.[/b]

1Raj 6:23 Selanjutnya di dalam ruang belakang itu dibuatnya dua kerub dari kayu minyak, masing-masing sepuluh hasta tingginya.
1Raj 6:24 Sayap yang satu dari kerub itu lima hasta panjangnya dan sayap yang lain juga lima hasta, sehingga dari ujung sayap yang satu sampai ke ujung sayap yang lain sepuluh hasta panjangnya.
1Raj 6:25 Juga kerub yang kedua adalah sepuluh hasta panjangnya; dan kedua kerub itu sama ukuran dan sama potongan badannya.
1Raj 6:26 Tinggi kerub yang satu sepuluh hasta dan demikian juga kerub yang kedua.
1Raj 6:27 Maka ditaruhnyalah kerub-kerub itu di tengah-tengah ruang yang di sebelah dalam sekali; kerub-kerub itu mengembangkan sayapnya, sehingga kerub yang satu menyentuh dinding dengan sayapnya dan kerub yang kedua menyentuh dinding yang lain, sedang sayap-sayap yang arah ke tengah rumah itu bersentuhan ujungnya.
1Raj 6:28 Dan kerub-kerub itu dilapisinya dengan emas.
1Raj 6:29 Dan pada segala dinding rumah itu berkeliling ia mengukir gambar kerub, pohon korma dan bunga mengembang, baik di ruang sebelah dalam maupun di ruang sebelah luar
Kel 25:1-2,18-19 Berfirmanlah TUHAN kepada Musa: "Katakanlah kepada orang Israel, supaya mereka memungut bagi-Ku persembahan khusus; dari setiap orang yang terdorong hatinya, haruslah kamu pungut persembahan khusus kepada-Ku itu. Dan haruslah kaubuat dua kerub dari emas, kaubuatlah itu dari emas tempaan, pada kedua ujung tutup pendamaian itu. Buatlah satu kerub pada ujung sebelah sini dan satu kerub pada ujung sebelah sana; seiras dengan tutup pendamaian itu kamu buatlah kerub itu di atas kedua ujungnya.
Yosua 7:6
Yosua pun mengoyakkan jubahnya dan sujudlah ia dengan mukanya sampai ke tanah di depan tabut TUHAN hingga petang, bersama dengan para tua-tua orang Israel, sambil menaburkan debu di atas kepalanya.

https://www.templeinstitute.org/illustrated/solomon_cherubim.jpg

Titus 1:15 Bagi orang suci semuanya suci; tetapi bagi orang najis dan bagi orang tidak beriman suatupun tidak ada yang suci, karena baik akal maupun suara hati mereka najis.

KGK 2113 Pemujaan berhala tidak hanya ditemukan dalam upacara palsu di dunia kafir. Ia juga merupakan satu godaan yang terus-menerus bagi umat beriman. Pemujaan berhala itu ada, apabila manusia menghormati dan menyembah suatu hal tercipta sebagai pengganti Allah, apakah itu dewa-dewa atau setan-setan (umpamanya satanisme) atau kekuasaan kenikmatan, bangsa, nenek moyang, negara, uang, atau hal-hal semacam itu. “Kamu tidak dapat mengabdi kepada Allah dan kepada Mamon” demikian kata Yesus (Mat 6:34). Banyak martir yang meninggal karena mereka tidak menyembah “binatang” (Bdk Why l3-l4).; malahan mereka juga menolak menyembahnya, walaupun hanya dengan berpura-pura saja. Pemujaan berhala tidak menghargai Allah sebagai Tuhan yang satu-satunya; dengan demikian ia mengeluarkan orang dari persekutuan dengan Allah (Bdk Gal 5:20; Ef 5:5).

Ef 5:5 Karena ingatlah ini baik-baik: tidak ada orang sundal, orang cemar atau orang serakah, artinya penyembah berhala, yang mendapat bagian di dalam Kerajaan Kristus dan Allah.

Di sini jelas dikatakan bahwa orang yang menomorsatukan uang/ serakah dan kecemaran/ kenikmatan seksual di atas segala- galanya, adalah penyembah berhala, yang tidak mendapat bagian dalam Kerajaan Allah.
Sebab perintah Allah yang utama seperti diajarkan oleh Kristus adalah, “Kasihilah Tuhan, Allahmu, dengan segenap hatimu dan dengan segenap jiwamu dan dengan segenap akal budimu dan dengan segenap kekuatanmu.” (Mrk 12:30, lih. Mat 22:37, Luk 10:27).
Maka jika seseorang mengarahkan segenap hati, jiwa, akal budi, kekuatan, hanya untuk mengejar ‘ciptaan’ saja (uang, kekuasaan, kenikmatan duniawi), maka ia dapat dikatakan “menyembah berhala” karena menggantikan kedudukan Tuhan dengan ciptaan itu.
Ia memang tidak usah mengakui bahwa uang, kekuasaan, atau kenikmatan itu adalah Sang Pencipta, atau memberikan korban bakaran kepada uang, kekuasaan, kenikmatan itu; namun dengan sikap hidupnya yang menggantikan tempat Tuhan dengan hal- hal itu, itu sudah merupakan penyembahan berhala.
Demikianlah yang diajarkan oleh Kitab Suci, dan oleh Gereja Katolik.

Nah, mengapa protestan berbeda dengan iman Rasuli?

Tanya kenapa…

Salam

Wajah Yesus pada Kain Kafan Turin hampir serupa dengan Wajah Yesus pada lukisan Gereja Perdana

Mengapa protestan berbeda dengan iman Rasuli?

Tanya kenapa…

Salam

Shroud of Turin

The Shroud of Turin: modern photo of the face, positive left, negative right. Negative has been contrast enhanced.

Para iman karbitan hybrid yang menolak dan merubah iman Rasuli pada kemana ya?

Untuk ajaran iman Rasuli mengenai Maria:

Maria

Hayoooo… Para anti patung dan para anti iman Rasuli pada kemana neh?

Salam